Child Welfare Supreme Court Cases

Alan Lawson of the Fifth District to the Florida Supreme Court. RICHARD ARMSTRONG, ET AL. alleged he was fired from his job as a child welfare services. 28, 2018, the Pennsylvania Supreme Court issued a decision In the case of In the Interest of L. The Court of Appeals did not err in making this determination. Helvering upheld the constitutionality of Social Security on the basis that Congress has a general power to spend on whatever it deems to be in the general welfare. News Supreme Court Sets New Evidentiary Standard in Child Sex Abuse Cases In a 58-page opinion authored by Chief Justice Stuart Rabner, the unanimous court ruled against the admissibility of most. Supreme Court Guidelines on Adoption. 8, 1989 Continue reading the main story Share This. The Arizona Supreme Court ruling clarifies the limits of the Indian Child Welfare Act, a law intended to keep. The 9th Circuit didn't rule on the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Supreme Court to hear ICWA Case The United States Supreme Court recently agreed to hear an Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) adoption case involving a South Carolina couple who were ordered to turn over a 27-month-old girl to her biological father, a member of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma. The case involved the 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), a law intended to prevent the breakdown of Native American families. CYS appealed the trial court’s decision to the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. Department of Health and Human Services estimated that at least one of every 10 babies born in poor urban areas in the '90s would be placed in foster care. Supreme Court declined on Monday to hear a foster family's challenge to the adoption of their former foster daughter under the Indian Child Welfare Act. org, as a Constitutional amendment of the variety being proposed by the organization may well provide a first step toward meaningful reforms. In that case a single pursuer claimed damages in respect of physical abuse to which he had been subjected by Brother Benedict, a De La Salle brother, while at a school in Scotland.



Observers inside and outside ACS say the surge of cases is driven by heightened anxiety and caution—both among members of the public, who are calling in more reports of possible child abuse and neglect, and among child welfare staff, who are responding to those reports more aggressively. A case in the U. A case before a federal appeals court this week could upend an historic adoption law meant to combat centuries of brutal discrimination. The Supreme Court is the highest court in Kansas. Although the U. Supreme Court has rebuffed a bid to void a federal law that challengers claim is racist because it places the desires and rights of Native American tribes over the constitutionally protected best interests of children. English Español. Separated and Transnational Families - Toolkit for Child Welfare Cases. INDIANA LAW JO URNAL. child protection cases. Case Comment: R (DA & Ors) v Secretary of State for Work & Pensions [2019] UKSC 21 Part One 02 Jul 2019. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in the case Adoptive Couple v. US Supreme Court Denies Review of Arizona Child Welfare Case Posted on June 6, 2019 The U. The Dependency Docket Bench Cards grew out of the Beyond the Numbers project, a collaborative initiative of the Supreme Court of Ohio and the Ohio Department of Job and Family Services, designed to improve the way courts and agencies and their community partners address child welfare cases. Holyfield11 was the first and only Supreme Court case to address the ICWA.



court-appointed counsel representing parents in child welfare cases. The Supreme Court has agreed to take up cases involving LGBT individuals who claim they were fired from their jobs because of sexual orientation. Some tribes designate the tribal court as the tribal entity with the authority to act on behalf of the tribe, so in those circumstances the tribal court can intervene. US Supreme Court Case — Indian Child Welfare Act by Mark Demaray on April 19, 2013 As many of you may have seen in the national news this past week, the United States Supreme Court heard oral arguments in the case known as Adoptive Couple vs. My main focus is to examine the onset and progression of child labor leading up to the Supreme Court case of Hammer v. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. 65°F Overcast 80° 62°. The child was born addicted to drugs and is dealing with a myriad of health issues. This seems consistent with Lord Hobhouse in Lister, who relied on the idea of the voluntary assumption of the relationship and the duties that arise from that to establish vicarious liability. This week's 'More Perfect' recap, our summer look at the interesting historical tidbits from NPR's new Supreme Court-themed podcast, focuses on the case that inspired the podcast in the first place: Adoptive Couple v. Natural biases against an accused parent can create substantial obstacles. •Every child welfare case is a constitutional matter •For over 100 years, the U. Child Custody. Supreme Court has agreed to take up an important Oregon case that threatened to seriously limit the state's ability to investigate allegations of child abuse. The social worker must file the petition within two court days of removing your child. The question before.



He took the child home in 2011, where she has lived ever since. Normally, the Supreme Court does not hear such family law disputes, but this case is a test of the Indian Child Welfare Act. The 9th Circuit didn't rule on the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act. RICHARD ARMSTRONG, ET AL. A Summary of the Supreme Court's Parental Rights Doctrine: Up until 2000, the Supreme Court consistently upheld parental rights. Supreme Court refuses to hear Indian Child Welfare case; curtailing Indian Child Welfare Act would be an intrusion on sovereignty, says Rose Law Group Family Law Attorney Audra Petrolle. 2d 840, 787 N. In 2013, the U. Holyfield, 490 U. The case on which the court ruled has already been widely reported in the Western press. Case) Since 1975, children with disabilities have been entitled to a “free, appropriate public education” under what’s currently called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). courts to decide where children caught in divorce should stay. The data is considered accurate as of the date of the report. Family Court Judge Gerald Hardcastle — who no longer. The family sued in October 2017, joined by the states of Texas, Louisiana. Reno, NV - In a 5-4 decision in Adoptive Couple v. In a 6-1. The first violation after the accusation is made is the disregard of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. Dynar has Supreme Court case law of his own. US Supreme Court denies review of Arizona child welfare case FLAGSTAFF, Ariz.



Opinions have been published online since January 1997. Learn the importance the Supreme Court has on their lives. You can search by the SCC 5-digit case number, by name or word in the style of cause, or by file number from the appeal court. The first violation after the accusation is made is the disregard of the presumption of innocence until proven guilty. It is the first major case concerning child protective services systems to reach the high court in more than 21 years. Supreme Court Guidelines on Adoption. Responding to the Supreme Court’s decision, Child Poverty Action Group’s Martin Williams, a welfare rights adviser, said: “The question in this case was whether it is right and lawful to force tenants to spend subsistence benefits other than housing benefit (i. Child Custody. It consists of seven justices, each of whom is selected by the governor. The case of Mary Ellen – the first documented case of child abuse in the US was reported to the Animal Welfare Agency in 1874 May 30, 2017 Brad Smithfield “My name is Mary Ellen Wilson. Observers inside and outside ACS say the surge of cases is driven by heightened anxiety and caution—both among members of the public, who are calling in more reports of possible child abuse and neglect, and among child welfare staff, who are responding to those reports more aggressively. ___, was a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that held that several sections of the Indian Child Welfare Act do not apply to Native American biological fathers who are not custodians of an Indian child. Use the infographic to present the role of the Supreme Court, how it works, the types of cases. The case of Baby Veronica. Which Court Handles Child Protection cases? For those communities which fall within the “judicial area” where the Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador Family Division operates exclusively (East Coast and West Coast), such cases are handled by this court. Striving to Improve Justice for Children and Families Involved in Georgia's Child Welfare Court Process. On January 20, 2015, the United States Supreme Court will hear oral argument in Armstrong v. ) Clicking on any listed topic will retrieve all opinions classified under it. A federal judge in Texas has struck down the Indian Child Welfare Act, a decades-old federal law aimed at keeping Native American families together. The Supreme Court majority's narrow interpretation of the statute seems to say the Indian Child Welfare Act is intended primarily to avoid the breakup of Indian families.



Case Comment: R (DA & Ors) v Secretary of State for Work & Pensions [2019] UKSC 21 Part One 02 Jul 2019. Supreme Court heard ICWA Case. The Supreme Court will delve into the sensitive issue of child abuse on Tuesday as it hears arguments regarding whether a child protection investigator should have obtained a warrant or parental. Supreme Court has recognized that parents have the right to direct the care of their children (14th Amendment, Due Process Clause) •The way the Court has talked about this has been refined over time, but the essence remains the same •Fundamental liberty. Last Term, in Adoptive Couple v. Teach students facts about the Supreme Court and how it works. decision of U. Court Orders. Although the U. The state Supreme Court will likely hear the case next, and it should step in to provide some needed clarity. Vreeken or the “Right to Lie” case, was heard in the U. 30 (1989), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Indian Child Welfare Act governed adoptions of Indian children, and a tribal court had jurisdiction over a state court regardless of the location of birth of the child if the child or the natural parents resided on the reservation. Supreme Court involves a teacher's duty to report suspected child abuse and neglect. The case, S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. The Arkansas Supreme Court has declined the state's request to review the child abuse case of Jonathan Snow, which only leaves the conviction of endangering the welfare of a minor to stand. In 2000, however, the split decision in Troxel v. In 2010, the New Jersey Supreme Court held that the state’s child welfare agency failed to meet its statutory obligations to provide reasonable efforts in two cases.



2d 840, 787 N. The active efforts requirement is the state’s heightened obligation in child welfare cases involving Native American. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. The principles of law in this regard are well settled. Understanding Arizona's Education System. The 9th Circuit didn't rule on the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Supreme Court decision implicated §1912. court-appointed counsel representing parents in child welfare cases. “This decision is going to have an impact here probably in just whether the court can issue a sentence like that. Juvenile Court Child Welfare Case Appeal to Court of Appeals. US Supreme Court denies review of Arizona child welfare case FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. Supreme Court: local authority 'vicariously liable' for abuse of child in foster care A local authority has been held vicariously liable for the abuse of a woman by two sets of foster parents she was placed with as a child, despite not being negligent in its selection or supervision of the foster parents. Some tribes designate the tribal court as the tribal entity with the authority to act on behalf of the tribe, so in those circumstances the tribal court can intervene. Minor daughter expressed her grievance against her mother and prefers to stay with her father. In the only United States Supreme Court case to address ICWA, the Court agreed with this reading when the Court said, “ ‘ICWA designates the tribal court as the exclusive forum for the determination of custody and adoption matters for reservation-domiciled Indian children, and the preferred forum for nondomiciliary Indian children. Supreme Court denies review of Arizona child welfare case Durango, Colorado Summary: No precipitation throughout the week, with high temperatures peaking at 92° on Saturday.



While the welfare checklist is not a required consideration for the analysis of welfare in section 13 cases, it is without doubt a helpful aide memoir and this court has commended its use on many occasions (see, for example in Re F (A Child) (Relocation) [2012] EWCA Civ 1364, [2013] 1 FLR 645 at [37] where there is an overt assumption that the. Supreme Court deciding not to review the case tells us that they looked at the Goldwater Institute and their filing and they said that the federal district court got it right. The Court affirmed the Commission’s order. Categories: Adoption and Adoptive Placements; Child Abuse Restraining Orders/Injunctions (Juvenile Court) Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) Juvenile (Chapter 48) Juvenile (Chapter 938) Termination of Parental Rights (Voluntary or Involuntary). Or, you can go to your local Child Support Enforcement Unit to help you start the Family Court case. April 16, 2013. The Supreme Court today upheld, by a 7-2 vote, controversial provisions of a child pornography law that made it illegal to promote material presented as child pornography even if the material in quest. Additional resources include a directory of local self-help centers, web links to free and low cost legal aid, mediator search capabilities, and guardianship resources. Baby Girl - commonly called the “Baby Veronica” case. military’s highest appellate court. Indian Child Welfare Act Supreme Court Cases. The CPSL includes no definition of or provisions regarding a fetus. Explore Section. About the Committee: Since 1995, The Supreme Court's Committee on Justice for Children (J4C) has administered the Court Improvement Project to develop and implement a data driven plan for continous improvement in juvenile dependency cases. Appeals court to hear Native American child welfare case. Supreme Court of Canada sides with police in internet child luring case The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa on Friday, Nov. org, as a Constitutional amendment of the variety being proposed by the organization may well provide a first step toward meaningful reforms. The cornerstone. Helvering upheld the constitutionality of Social Security on the basis that Congress has a general power to spend on whatever it deems to be in the general welfare. Supreme Court has denied review of an Arizona case challenging a law that gives preference to American Indians in adoptions of Native children.



During its 2016-2017 session, the U. The Supreme Court has scheduled oral arguments for April 16 in the case of Adoptive Couple v. saenz, director, california department of social services, et al. In a case that has triggered public outrage, a top Finnish court has upheld a ruling that sex between an asylum seeker and a 10-year-old girl didn’t constitute rape. Understanding Arizona's Education System. A case before a federal appeals court could upend an historic adoption law meant to combat centuries of brutal discrimination against American Indians and keep their children with families and tribal communities. Supreme Court has denied review of an Arizona case challenging a law that gives preference to American Indians in adoptions of Native children. Additionally, the requirement to make extra efforts to preserve the Indian family also does not apply. degree to which the child has suffered. Supreme Court: Articles 3, 6 and 8 ECHR in child protection PII case. Supreme Court has agreed to take up an important Oregon case that threatened to seriously limit the state's ability to investigate allegations of child abuse. Parental Rights and Child Welfare Parents are losing custody without cause in far too many cases - and often losing their permanent parental rights, as well. , PETITIONERS. The permanent, official versions of Maine Supreme Judicial Court's opinions are those published in the Atlantic Reporter (2d Series and 3d Series), which has been Maine's official reporter since 1966. Supreme Court has rebuffed a bid to void a federal law that challengers claim is racist because it places the desires and rights of Native American tribes over the constitutionally protected best interests of children. The Supreme Court announced on Friday that it will not hear a case regarding an Alabama law banning abortions by dismemberment, allowing a lower court ruling against the legislation to stand. The order last week leaves in Continue reading US Supreme Court Denies Review of Arizona Child Welfare Case →. Emotions Run High As Supreme Court Hears Adoption Case The U. Case Law Termination of parental rights.



The Illinois Supreme Court in Julie Q. Tribal officials demanded that the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) be applied to the children’s case, which requires all Native American children to be placed with Native American adults in child custody cases, solely on the basis of their race. "Petitioner" refers to the party who petitioned the Supreme Court to review the case. The Court of Appeals does not retry the case, take evidence, or weigh the credibility of witnesses. PARENTAL RIGHTS VS. Department of Health and Human Services estimated that at least one of every 10 babies born in poor urban areas in the '90s would be placed in foster care. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick Jim Bronskill, The Canadian. Dagenhart, 247 U. Published appellate opinions are posted on this web page within about an hour of the time they are sent to the webmaster by the Office of the Appellate Reporter. Ronald Dwight Tipton, 58, was previously. The packets will be more helpful to people who agree on the terms of their divorce, child custody or child support case. That child is not part of the case the Supreme Court will hear on Wednesday. Kate Brown has signed into law. Or, you can go to your local Child Support Enforcement Unit to help you start the Family Court case. The 9th Circuit didn't rule on the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Union of India. Hodges, et al. The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has refused to grant an appeal by former Penn State President Graham Spanier for new arguments on his 2017 child endangerment conviction.



And that power in many cases goes essentially unchecked. The case involves important issues relating to the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), including. Bill to make Dental Council of India more effective introduced in LS. This is one reason it is important that you stay in contact with our office once a case has been opened. It has long sought to end the juvenile death penalty in the United States and joined an amicus brief in today’s Supreme Court case. A parent's rights and responsibilities Court hearings in child welfare cases Who should attend court hearings and reviews Frequently asked questions about court proceedings How to file an appeal Glossary of court terms Helpful resources. US Supreme Court denies review of Arizona child welfare case Updated 12:24 am EDT, Thursday, May 30, 2019 FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. Arizona Supreme Court ruling allows non-Native American couple to adopt Native child. Argued April 16, 2013—Decided June 25, 2013. Although the child's welfare is the main focus in any relocation case, the personal welfare of the petitioning parent is highly relevant because of its obvious relationship to the child's well-being. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. 2 defines income for child support purposes as including all income from all sources and specifically lists veterans’ benefits as a potential source of income in determining child support. FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. grandparent visitation statute was unconstitutional as applied in a particular case because it infringed on the fundamental right of a parent to make decisions concerning the care, custody, and control of his or her child. Additionally, the requirement to make extra efforts to preserve the Indian family also does not apply. Rules of Procedure for Child Abuse and Neglect Proceedings Supreme Court of. June 26 was a historic day at the U. Trial court was heavily influenced by the mother's extramarital affair in denying her custody, despite that she was not neglectful of her children or unfit to handle the responsibilities of parenting.



The Supreme Court in 1995 passed the judgment in her favor, with back pay and perks from the date of dismissal # Sakshi v. Four Newfoundland men have spent months waiting for the Supreme Court of Canada to make a decision when it comes to the privacy rights of those accused of online child luring. Family List of Cases This list contains certain frequently relied on cases which are supplied to judges hearing family law cases in the Superior Court of Justice as directed by the provisions in the Consolidated Provincial Practice Direction that address often cited family law cases. 8, 1989 Continue reading the main story Share This. Supreme Court decision affecting the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as the guiding law when determining the well-being of an Indian child in […]. Introduction In these joined appeals, the Supreme Court considered whether the “revised benefit cap” – the effect of which is…. Justice Stratton. "To us, the U. TOP TEN CASES EVERY CHILD WELFARE ATTORNEY SHOULD KNOW 1. Rick Scott's petition to review a ruling that his random drug testing policy for state employees is unconstitutional, the. Supreme Court will hear oral arguments in the case of Adoptive Couple v. Supreme Court involves a teacher's duty to report suspected child abuse and neglect. Frequently, custodial parents desire to relocate for reasons of personal happiness and fulfillment. Child Custody. Supreme Court of Canada Divided on Welfare Benefits December 19, 2002 PovNet 's home page offers a summary of both the Kimberly Rogers inquest in Sudbury (Ontario) and the Louise Gosselin case in the Supreme Court of Canada, as well as links to further information in both cases. All issues regarding a child support case can often be resolved without you having to go to court. Exceptional Child Center, a case that has the potential to impact the future ability of private parties. Governor Scott has appointed Judge C. In addition, the high cost and requirements of local cocounsel can make appearing in a timely manner for a child welfare case nearly impossible.



While the game is played upon a rectangular field, 360 feet in. This program can ask the Family Court to modify the order. (AP) — The U. Colorado Supreme Court Upholds a Decision That Forced a Teenager to Register As a Sex Offender for Swapping Nude Selfies That result "may strike some as unfair," the court says, but it's what. “This decision is going to have an impact here probably in just whether the court can issue a sentence like that. The court held that the procedures required by the ICWA to end parental rights do not apply when the child has never lived with the father. 4, 2018 photo, the U. Facts: The State of Wisconsin enacted a compulsory school attendance law which required all children to attend public or private school until attaining the age of 16. 2d 196, 2004 N. This page contains a form to search the Supreme Court of Canada case information database. The state court had relied in part on Section 1912(f) of the codified ICWA, which bars termination of parental rights to an Indian child unless the court finds that "the continued custody of the. Brian Horn, a 34-year-old former taxi driver. Supreme Court; Court of Appeals; Home > Court Appointed Attorneys > Non-Contract Attorneys > Resources for Child Welfare Cases. If the appellate court upholds the lower court’s ruling, the case may very well proceed to the Supreme Court. The Michigan Supreme Court is providing the information on this site as a public service. There has been many case law that emphasises the importance the courts have placed on the welfare of a child and any decision governed by a statute of family law will give. Supreme Court Case to Outline Powers of CPS Agencies, Rights of Parents This is the third in a series of very good articles about the Nebraska child welfare system and the state's Department of Health and Human Services ( North Platte Telegraph , 2/16/11).



We consider whether Medicaid. Q: Why can Welfare workers enter a home without a warrant but CPS workers cannot? A: The United States Supreme Court has ruled that Welfare workers do not need a warrant to enter a private home. (AP) — The U. RE: Summary of Miranda Supreme Court Case in Child Abuse/Assault You asked for a summary of Connecticut v. The packets will be more helpful to people who agree on the terms of their divorce, child custody or child support case. You can search by the SCC 5-digit case number, by name or word in the style of cause, or by file number from the appeal court. A review of cases taking up the issue shows that the Supreme Court has unwaveringly given parental rights the highest respect and protection possible. Understanding Child Welfare and the Courts. The high court's ruling turned mostly on a single phrase in the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 — “continued custody. But a family court in Texas thwarted their plans, blocking the adoption on the grounds of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Separated and Transnational Families - Toolkit for Child Welfare Cases. Supreme Court Guidelines on Adoption. Cuellar de Osorio, concerning whether a derivative beneficiary of a visa petition who is over twenty-one years old, even when calculating the appropriate Child Status Protection Act (CSPA) age, is able to retain the priority date of the earlier petition filed on behalf of the primary. 1967 Alvarado v. , PETITIONERS.



The Supreme Court held that IDHW failed to prove John Doe willfully abandoned the child and reversed the magistrate’s ruling that it was in the best interest of the child to remain in the care of IDHW and remanded the case to the magistrate court with instructions to order IDHW to deliver the child to John Doe in Mexico. RICHARD ARMSTRONG, ET AL. Sessions, a unanimous Supreme Court held that in the context of statutory rape offenses. Supreme Court denies review of Indian Child Welfare Act case out of Arizona, while tribes await decision in separate case that. The court held that the procedures required by the ICWA to end parental rights do not apply when the child has never lived with the father. The controversial Supreme Court case also established that the right of woman to have an abortion was limited to the third trimester of pregnancy. with the U. Supreme Court will decide whether Ohio prosecutors acted constitutionally when they relied on what a child-abuse victim told his teachers to convict a Cleveland man of. SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. If the court, after notice and hearing, is satisfied that the allegations of the petition are true and that it is for the best interest and welfare of the child the court shall issue an order taking him from the custody of the person or agency, as the case may be, and committing him to the custody of another duly licensed child placement agency or individual. Five of his child welfare opinions are resolved with references to statutes, court rules, and the fundamental due process requirements of notice and opportunity to be heard. The 9th Circuit didn't rule on the constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. Case number 15-55563, also known as Hardwick v. Encourages child welfare agencies, courts, administrative officers of the courts, and Court Improvement Programs to work together to ensure parents, children and youth, and child welfare agencies receive high-quality legal representation at all stages of child welfare proceedings. 12 There, the Court explained that the ICWA was the “product of rising concern in the mid-1970s over the consequences to Indian children, Indian families, and Indian tribes of abusive child welfare practices that resulted in the separation of large numbers of.



Supreme Court has denied review of an Arizona case challenging a law that gives preference to American Indians in adoptions of Native children. Supreme Court on Monday declined to hear appeals concerning mandated vaccines in public schools and a school district's refusal to allow a religious group's fliers to be sent home with. Judge Lawson’s vote, if consistent with his 2010 concurrence, wouldn’t have changed that outcome. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled the case was moot because the children had been adopted. Baby Girl, 570 U. 1901-1963, holding that the district court properly found that there was good cause within the meaning of ICWA not to. Rules of Procedure for Child Abuse and Neglect Proceedings Supreme Court of. The Supreme Court of the United States has traditionally and continuously upheld the principle that parents have the fundamental right to direct the education and upbringing of their children. It consists of seven justices, each of whom is selected by the governor. Responding to the Supreme Court’s decision, Child Poverty Action Group’s Martin Williams, a welfare rights adviser, said: “The question in this case was whether it is right and lawful to force tenants to spend subsistence benefits other than housing benefit (i. Minor daughter expressed her grievance against her mother and prefers to stay with her father. The Supreme Court has scheduled oral arguments for April 16 in the case of Adoptive Couple v. Clayton County a child-welfare-services. SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES. The Michigan Supreme Court is providing the information on this site as a public service. CYS appealed the trial court’s decision to the Superior Court of Pennsylvania. Child Welfare Supreme Court Cases.